Cactus is a unique plant alright, but then again they come in different shapes, sizes, heights, and colors. As such, it is important to differentiate the various types of cacti and what distinguishes them from one another. Cactus identification is not a hard job, if you know how to identify the different types that exist. It becomes even much easier if you get to understand what to look out for. Cacti, as a classification of succulent plants, are often found in dry and harsh environments. This is one of the most important characteristics to consider when identifying your cactus type.
So, what are some of the ways to identify your cactus type? There are hundreds of different types of cactus out there but these common ones can be identified by their physical features, the climate they thrive in, or where you live if that’s not an option. Other noble factors you can use to identify your cacti type are the types of needles/spines, coloration, and natural habitat. Shape, color, height, flowering style and seeds also play an important role in the identification of a cactus plant type.
There is no sure way to know for certain what type of cactus you have without a visual inspection on your part. This article will be looking at the various physical factors to look out for when identifying a cactus type.
A look at the physical features
When telling apart one cactus from the other, the physical features are the best place to start. Some notable physical features you can look out for include:
The leaves of the cactus plant are one key feature you may want to look into. Are your plants spiny or not? You can find out by looking at their leaves. Spines on a leaf will be needle-like and sharp, while non-spiny types have soft edges. Some other helpful clues about your cacti plant would be the color and shape of its leaves.
The color of the leaves can be identified by looking at its photosynthetic pigments namely chlorophyll and carotenoids. Chlorophyll is responsible for absorbing light energy from the sun and storing it as chemical energy, while carotenoids are what give the plants their distinctive colors.
The shape of the leaves may also provide some clues about your cactus plant type. Plants with needle-like leaves and spines are typically more succulent, while flat leafed plants tend to be tougher in nature as they can withstand harsh environments better. For instance leaves from a saguaro cactus are flat, while the leaves of a barrel cactus grow in an upright position.
The various needle styles can also be used as an indicator of what type your cacti are, but like the shape and color this may not always give you accurate results. The more succulent and fleshy varieties will generally have needle-like spines, while the more tough and leafy varieties will generally be flat.
How high can they grow?
Height is another physical feature you might want to take into consideration when identifying your cactus type. Height and altitude can be used as a determining factor when identifying your plant type because plants that live at higher altitudes usually have longer roots than those. The tallest of all the succulents is the Saguaro Cactus, which can grow up to 50 feet tall without too much trouble. On the other hand there are small varieties like hedgehog and pereskia that will only reach a height of about six inches or so. Just a quick physical examination of your cactus’ height can help you determine what type of cactus plant it is.
Shape and coloration
The shape and coloring of a cacti can also be used to identify its type, especially if there are no spines or leaves to go by. Shape usually provides some clues about the plants’ climate requirements, which in turn might provide more insight about the plant’s type.
The color of a cactus can also serve as an indicator for its identity, but there are so many types to choose from that you may not be able to make an accurate guess just by looking at it. A white-spined barrel cactus might have a green body while another spiny species might have a green-brown body. The yellowish color of the dwarf saguaro is a lot different from the brown spines on a barbed wire cactus, and so on.
As you can see there are many physical features to look out for that might give away what type of cactus plant your plants belong to. One tip is that if you find something about a particular species odd or unique, it’s worth taking a closer look because it might be what you’ve been looking for.
How are its flowering style and pattern?
Another physical feature is the flowering style, which will determine whether it is an epiphytic or terrestrial plant. Epiphytes are plants that grow in humid climates with little contact to soil and rely on other plants for nutrients whereas terrestrials have roots and need direct access to soil.
The pattern of a cactus’ flowers can also be an indicator for its type. The barrel and saguaro have radial patterns, while the hedgehog is another example of a plant that has radial patterns but they are more elongated. A columnar species like the cardon might show off vertical stripes or zig-zags in alternating colors.
If you have a columnar cactus with vertical stripes in alternating colors then it is most likely a cardon, while if your cactus has radial patterns and spines then it’s more than likely to be either the barrel or saguaro type.
The coloration of the flowers also provides a clue for the type of cactus your plant belongs to, but this is not always an accurate indicator. For example a hedgehog may have yellow flowers or another species with red-topped flowers might be cardon.
What about the seeds?
Different cactus types produce different seeds that are suited to their environment. The Saguaro cactus, for example, will have fleshy and smaller seed pods while the hedgehog has much larger spiny fruit. Other types like the barrel cactus will have a more oval or spherical shape, while the cardon is known to produce seeds that are round and shiny.
These different types of seed pods can provide clues about what type of cactus you may have in your garden. Perhaps you’ve had your plant for some time now and it’s not flowering or producing any flowers even after a long growth period? It may help a great deal to examine its seeds even before planting as they can offer some valuable information about the plant’s type. Different cactus types produce different seed pods, so if your cactus is not flowering or producing any flowers even after a long growth period then it may be because of its type and what kind of environmental conditions that type prefers.
Climate and Natural Habitat
The climatic conditions of the region and the natural habitat play a huge role in the type of cactus you have. Specific cactus types will grown in certain locations based on their natural habitat at various altitudes.
For instance, the Saguaro cactus can be found in Arizona, California and Mexico while the cardon will mainly grow in Bolivia. The barrel cacti are native to Southern Mexico and Guatemala but there are also varieties that grow as far north as Texas or even New York.
The low-lying, more succulent species like epiphytic pereskias and hedgehogs thrive best in humid climates with high humidity or rainfall levels where they can get their water from the air (epiphyte) whereas taller varieties that grow primarily on rock surfaces find it difficult to survive in these types of climates.
When determining your cactus type based on its natural habitat, it’s important to take note of the altitude level that it grows in. For example, a cactus found at lower elevations will have spines on its fruit whereas plants with less exposure to sunlight and more moisture tend to produce flowers instead (e.g., pereskias). This should help you identify your cactus type if it falls into the columnar category.
Why Is Cactus Type Identification And Classification Important?
There are several reasons why it’s important to identify which type of cactus you have. They include the following:
– Knowing the type may help you identify its natural habitat and climate. For instance, a cactus found at lower elevations will have spines on its fruit whereas plants with less exposure to sunlight and more moisture tend to produce flowers instead (e.g., pereskias).
– Determining your plant type may help you choose the best fertilizer and watering regime. As with any plant type, cacti also require specific nutrients and there are different fertilisers that cater to their various needs (e.g., sulphate of potash for spiny plants). Fertilizer needs vary depending on the plant type and what natural habitat it prefers.
– You may be able to grow more varieties of cacti if you know their type. It’s not easy to find a certain variety of cactus in your area, but knowing its name will help you search for other nurseries that might have them or do some international seed trading.
– Once you know your cactus type, it’s easier to identify any pests or diseases that might be the culprit of its lack of flowers and blooming as well as how best to take care of them. Notably, some cactus types are more resistant to pests compared to others and as such require less attention from pesticide.
– Knowing your cactus type will help you understand which ones are going to thrive better in certain environments, or at least be more tolerant of them. For example, a barrel cactus may not produce flowers but it is still capable of living long periods with little water as opposed to the taller varieties that grow primarily on rock surfaces. It will also make identifying other members in a group on your property much easier if they all have spines versus flowers.
– Cactus identification may also be helpful if you’re looking for information on how to care or propagate your own species. It helps you indetify the best practices to meet your cacti’s needs. This will help reduce the amount of guesswork involved in caring for your cacti.
Most Common Cacti Types and Their Characteristics
Cactus is a unique succulent that comes in a number of species and types. While some are rare, others are pretty common and can be found in most locations worldwide. Here is a list of the most common cactus types and their characteristics:
– Barrel Cacti – These low-lying, more succulent species like epiphytic pereskias thrive best in humid climates with high humidity or rainfall levels where they can get their water from the air (epiphyte) whereas taller varieties that grow primarily on rock surfaces find it difficult to survive in these types of climates.
– Ball Cacti – These are the most common cactus type found and ideal for beginners because they’re easy and less fussy than other plant varieties, but still need at least some attention or else they will wither up.
– Cereus Cacti – These cactus types are the ones that bloom and produce flowers. They require a lot of light in order to thrive so they’re popular choices for indoor growers who can give them enough sunlight, but most people find it difficult to grow these indoors because they need high levels of humidity or else their flowers will wither up.
– Pincushion Cacti – These are the most commonly grown cactus and grows quickly so it’s a good choice for beginners. They require less attention than other types, but still need at least some care or else they will wither up.
– Succulent Cactus – These are the only type that can produce flowers even without being exposed to a lot of sunlight because their leaves store water which is what helps them bloom.
-Saguaro Cactus – These cacti types are the ones that bloom and produce flowers. They require a lot of light in order to thrive so they’re popular choices for indoor growers who can give them enough sunlight, but most people find it difficult to grow these indoors because they need high levels of humidity or else their flowers will wither up.
-Christmas Cacti – These cacti types are the ones that bloom and produce flowers. They require a lot of light in order to thrive so they’re popular choices for indoor growers who can give them enough sunlight, but most people find it difficult to grow these indoors because they need high levels of humidity or else their flowers will wither up. A Christmas cactus gets its name from the fact that it blooms in December.
How To Identify The Best Indoor Cactus Types
Cactus can be grown both in the outdoor garden and indoors. However, it can sometimes be a challenge trying to determine which type will thrive best indoors. There are many types of cacti and some don’t do well in the indoor environment while others need too much care to be considered ideal for beginners or those with a lack of time or space. To identify the best indoor cacti, consider the following factors:
– Light – The most common indoor cacti types are those that thrive in low levels of light.
– Water needs – While succulents can survive on less watering, they still require some level of care or else they will wither up and die.
– Soil type – Cactus cannot be grown with regular potting soil because it contains fertilizers, which can kill the plant. Instead, use a special cactus potting soil or mix your own with sand and gravel
– Climate – The best indoor cacti types are those that do not require humid climates to survive; these plants will wither up in such environments whereas succulents thrive there so they’re a good choice for indoor cacti types.
– Height – The taller variety of cactus tend to need more care than the shorter varieties; this is especially true if it’s being grown indoors where there are fewer natural light sources like in other climates so they won’t produce flowers or bloom without enough sunlight.
Cactus is a uniquely interesting plant that you can plant at home. However, this can only be possible if you understand the type that works best based on your environment. Your ability to tell apart from one cacti from the other will come in handy in this case. With the hundreds of species out there, it’s not always easy to identify the type that will thrive in your specific situation. Some types require more care than others and some don’t do well indoors at all. With these tips to consider before buying your cactus, it should be much easier to pick out the right one for your needs.